Samuel Justin Sinclair Samuel Justin Sinclair, PhD

617-327-6777 x2311, Work Space 208F


  • Assistant Professor, Clinical Psychology Program


  • 2008,  Post-Doctoral Fellowship in Clinical Psychology: Massachusetts General Hospital & Harvard Medical School
  • 2007, PhD in Clinical Psychology: Suffolk University
  • 2007,  Pre-Doctoral Internship in Clinical Psychology: Massachusetts General Hospital & Harvard Medical School
  • 2004, MA in Clinical Psychology: Suffolk University
  • 2000 ,MEd in Human Development & Psychology: Harvard University
  • 1997, BA in Psychology: Boston College


  • Integrated Assessment: Adult
  • Personality Assessment

Research and Practice Interests

  • Psychological and neurocognitive assessment
  • Psychometrics and scale development
  • Suicide and violence risk
  • Terrorism and political violence

Professional Licenses and Certifications

  • Licensed Psychologist (Massachusetts)

Publications and Presentations

Peer-Reviewed Journal Publications:

Haley, S.M., Coster, W.J., Andres, P.L., Ludlow, L.H., Bond, T., Sinclair, S.J., & Jette AM. (2004). Activity outcome measurement for post-acute care. Medical Care, 42, 49-61.

Gandek, B., Sinclair, S.J., Kosinski, M., & Ware, J.E. (2004). Psychometric evaluation of the SF-36 health survey in medicare managed care. Health Care Financing Review, 25(4), 5-25.

Ware, J.E., Gandek, B., Sinclair, S.J., & Bjorner, J.B. (2005). Item response theory and computerized adaptive testing: implications for outcomes measurement in rehabilitation. Rehabilitation Psychology, 10, 71-78.

Haley, S.M., Siebens, H., Coster, W.J., Tao, W., Black-Schaffer, R.M., Gandek, B., Sinclair, S.J., & Ni, P. (2006). Computer adaptive testing for follow-up after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation:  I. activity outcomes. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87: 1033-1042. 

Sinclair, S.J., & LoCicero, A. (2006). Development and psychometric testing of the perceptions of terrorism questionnaire short-form (PTQ-SF). New School Psychology Bulletin, 4: 7-43.

Gandek, B., Sinclair, S.J., Jette, A.M., & Ware, J.E. (2006). Development and initial testing of the participation measure for post-acute care. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86, 57-71.

Sinclair, S.J., & Gansler, D.A. (2006). Integrating the somatic marker and social cognition theories to explain different manifestations of antisocial personality disorder. New School Psychology Bulletin, 4, 25-47.

Hinton, D.E., Sinclair, S.J., Chung, R., & Pollack, M. (2007). The SF-36 among cambodian and vietnamese refugees: an examination of psychometric properties. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29, 39-46.

Sinclair, S.J., & LoCicero, A. (2007). Osama bin Laden: a developmental perspective. New School Psychology Bulletin, 5, 1-33.

Sinclair, S.J., & LoCicero A. (2007). Fearing future terrorism: development, validation, and psychometric testing of the terrorism catastrophizing scale (TCS). Traumatology: An International Journal, 13, 75-90.

LoCicero, A., & Sinclair, S.J. (2008). Terrorism and terrorist leaders: insights from developmental and ecological psychology. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 31, 227-250.

Haley, S.M., Gandek, B., Siebens, H., Black-Schaffer, R.M., Sinclair, S.J., Teo, W., Coster, W., Ni, P., & Jette, A. (2008). Computerized adaptive testing for follow-up after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation: II. participation outcomes. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89, 275-283.

Sinclair, S.J., Siefert, C.J., Shorey, H., Antonius, D., Shiva, A., Kehl-Fie, K., & Blais, M. (2009). A psychometric evaluation of the personality assessment inventory - short form (PAI-SF) clinical scales in an inpatient psychiatric sample. Psychiatry Research, 170, 262-266.

Sinclair, S.J., & Antonius, D. (2009). International, societal, and cultural considerations in understanding issues in terrorism. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 3, 161-163.

Antonius, D., Sinclair, S.J. (2009). In the wake of terrorist attacks: attitudes, the role of media, and identity. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 2, 81-83.

Sinclair, S.J., & Antonius, D. (2009). Behavioral sciences of terrorism and political aggression: integrating the science of political violence across nations, disciplines, and perspectives. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 1, 1-4.

Siefert, C.J.,  Sinclair, S.J., Kehl-Fie, K.A., & Blais, M. (2009). An item level psychometric analysis of the personality assessment inventory clinical scales. Assessment, 16, 373-383.

Sinclair, S.J., & LoCicero, A. (2010). Do fears of terrorism predict trust in government? Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 2, 57-68.

Sinclair, S.J., Blais, M.A., Gansler, D.A., Sandberg, E., Bistis, K., & LoCicero, A. (2010). Psychometric properties of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Overall and across demographic groups living within the United States. Evaluation & The Health Professions, 33, 56-80.

Sinclair, S.J., Antonius, D., Shiva, A., Siefert, C.J., Kehl-Fie, K., Lama, S., Shorey, H.S., & Blais, M. (2010). The psychometric properties of the personality assessment inventory-short form (PAI-SF) in inpatient forensic and civil samples. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32, 406-415.

Sinclair, S.J., & Antonius, D. (2010). Social dynamics and psychological implications of terrorism and political violence. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 2, 1-2.

Monaghan, R., Antonius, D., Sinclair, S.J. (2011). Defining ‘terrorism’: moving towards a more integrated and interdisciplinary understanding of political violence. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 3(2), 77-79.

Sinclair, S.J., Siefert, C.J., Slavin-Mulford, J., Stein, M.B., Renna, M., Blais, M. (2012). Psychometric evaluation and normative data for the depression, anxiety, and stress scales-21 (DASS-21) in a non-clinical sample of United States adults. Evaluation & The Health Professions, 35, 259-279.

Stein, M.B., Slavin-Mulford, J., Sinclair, S.J., Siefert, C.J., & Blais, M. (2012). Exploring the construct validity of the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale through clinical assessment. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94, 533-540.

Slavin-Mulford, J., Sinclair, S.J., Stein, M., Malone, J., Bello, I, & Blais, M. (2012). External Validity of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in a clinical sample. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94, 593-600.

Siefert, C., Stein, M.B., Sinclair, S.J., Antonius, D., Shiva, A., & Blais, M. (2012). Development and initial validation of a scale for detecting inconsistent responding on the Personality Assessment Inventory – Short Form. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94, 601-606.

Sinclair, S.J., Bello, I., Nyer, M., Slavin-Mulford, J., Stein, M.B., Renna, M., Antonius, D., & Blais, M. (2012). The Suicide (SPI) and Violence Potential Indices (VPI) from the Personality Assessment Inventory: A preliminary exploration of validity in an outpatient psychiatric sample. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 34, 423-431.

Blais, M., Sinclair, S.J., Baity, M.R., Worth, J., Weiss, A.P., Ball, L.A., & Herman, J. (2012). Measuring outcomes in adult outpatient psychiatry. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 19, 203-213.

Antonius, D., Kline, B., Sinclair, S.J., White-Ajmani, M., Gianfagna, S., Malaspina, D., & Tremeau, F. (2013). Deficits in implicit facial recognition of fear in aggressive patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 143, 401-402.

Blais, M., Malone, J., Stein, M.B., Slavin-Mulford, J., O’Keefe, S., Renna, M., & Sinclair, S.J. (2013). Treatment as usual for depression: A comparison of psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and combined treatment at a large academic medical center. Psychotherapy, 50(1), 110-118.

Malone, J., Stein, M.B., Slavin-Mulford, J., Bello, I., Sinclair, S.J., & Blais, M. (2013). Seeing Red: Affect modulation and chromatic color responses on the Rorschach. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 77(1), 70-93.

Slavin-Mulford, J., Sinclair, S.J., Stein, M.B., Malone, J., Bello, I., & Blais, M. (2013). External correlates of the Personality Assessment Inventory higher order structures.Journal of Personality Assessment, 95(4), 432-434.

Sinclair, S.J., Slavin-Mulford, J., Antonius, D., Stein, M.B., Siefert, C.J., Haggerty, G., O’Keefe, S., & Blais, M,A. (2013). Development and preliminary validation of the Level of Care Index (LOCI) from the personality assessment inventory in a psychiatric sample. Psychological Assessment, 25, 606-617.

Antonius, D., Messinger, J.W., Maile, J., Siefert, C.J., Shiva, A., Belfi, B., Blais, M.A., Malaspina, D., & Sinclair, S.J. (2013). Assessing heterogeneity of aggression in psychiatric patients: Exploratory and confirmatory analyses of reactive and instrumental aggression Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales. Violence and Victims, 28(4), 587-601.

Antonius, D., Bruce, K.L., Moisa, B., Sinclair, S.J., Malaspina, D., & Tremeau, F. (2013). Familiarity preference in schizophrenia is associated with ambivalent attitudes towards others. Schizophrenia Research, 150(1), 229-234.  

Stein, M.B., Slavin-Mulford, J., Siefert, C.J., Sinclair, S.J., Renna, M., Malone, J., Bello, I., & Blais, M. (2014). SCORS-G stimulus characteristics of select thematic apperception test cards. Journal of Personality Assessment, 96(3), 339-349.

Haggerty, G., Forlenza, N., Poland, C., Ray, S., Zodan, J., Mehra, A., Goyal, A., Baity, M., Siefert, C.J., & Sinclair, S.J. (2014). Assessing overall functioning with adolescent inpatients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 202(11), 822-828.

Haggerty, G., Siefert, C.J., Stoycheva, V., Sinclair, S.J., Baity, M., Zodan, J., Mehra, A., Chand, V., & Blais, M. (2014). Determining adolescents’ suitability for inpatient psychotherapy: Utility of the clinician-rated Readiness for Inpatient Psychotherapy Scale with an adolescent inpatient sample. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 78(4): 349-72.

Zucker, H., Ahn, R., Sinclair, S.J., Blais, M.B., Nelson, B.D., & Burke, T.F. (2014). Development of a scale to measure individuals’ ratings of peace. Conflict and Health, 8(1), DOI: 10.1186/1752-1505-8-17.

Blais, M.A., Blagys, M.D., Rivas-Vazquez, R., Bello, I., Sinclair, S.J. (2015). Development and initial validation of a brief symptom measure, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 22(3), 267-275.

Sinclair, S.J., Smith, M., Chung, W.J., Liebman, R., Stein, M.B., Antonius, D., Siefert, C.J., Haggerty, G., & Blais, M.A. (2015). Extending the validity of the personality assessment inventory’s (PAI) Level of Care Index (LOCI) in multiple psychiatric settings. Journal of Personality Assessment, 97(2), 145-152.

Haggerty, G., Siefert, C.J., Sinclair, S.J., Zodan, J., Babalola, R., & Blais, M.A. (2015). Validation of a measure of alliance for an adolescent inpatient setting. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 22(4), 357-363.

Haggerty, G., Blanchard, M., Baity, M., Defife, J., Stein, M.B., Siefert, C.J., Sinclair, S.J., & Zodan, J. (2015). Clinical validity of a dimensional assessment of self-and interpersonal functioning in adolescent inpatients. Journal of Personality Assessment, 97(1), 3-12.

Slavin-Mulford, J., Perkey, H., Blais, M., Stein, M., & Sinclair, S.J. (2015). External validity of the Symptom Assessment-45 (SA-45) questionnaire in a clinical sample.Comprehensive Psychiatry, 58, 205-212.

Haggerty, G., Siefert, C.J., Bornstein, R., Sinclair, S.J., Blais, M., Zodan, J., & Rao, N. (2015). Correlates of interpersonal dependency and detachment in an adolescent inpatient sample. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 74 (9), 281-304.

Stein, M.B., Slavin-Mulford, J., Siefert, C.J., Sinclair, S.J., Smith, M., Chung, W.J., Liebman, R., & Blais, M.A. (2015). External validity of SCORS-G ratings of Thematic Apperception Test narratives in a sample of outpatients and inpatients. Rorschachiana, 36(1), 58-81.

Sinclair, S.J., Walsh-Messinger, J., Siefert, C.J., Antonius, D., Baity, M.J., Haggerty, G., Stein, M., & Blais, M. (2015). Neuropsychological functioning and profile validity on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI): An investigation in multiple psychiatric settings. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 79 (4), 305-334.

Leidenfrost, C.M., Calabrese, W., Schoelerman, R.M., Coggins, E., Ranney, M., Sinclair, S.J., & Antonius, D. (2016). Changes in psychological health and subjective well-being among incarcerated individuals with serious mental illness. Journal of Correctional Health Care, 22(1), 12-20.

Haggerty, G., Zodan, J., Mehra, A., Zubair, A., Ghosh, K., Siefert, C.J., Sinclair, S.J., Defife, J. (2016). Reliability and validity of prototype diagnosis for adolescent psychopathology. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 204(4), 287-290.

Haggerty, G., Bornstein, R.F., Khalid, M., Sharma, V., Riaz, U., Blanchard, M., Siefert, C.J., Sinclair, S.J. (2016). Construct validity of the Relationship Profile Test: Links with measures of psychopathology and adult attachment. Journal of Personality Assessment, 98(1), 82-87.

Siefert, C.J., Stein, M., Slavin-Mulford, J., Sinclair, S.J., Haggerty, G., & Blais, M.A. (2016). Estimating the effects of Thematic Apperception Test card content on SCORS-G ratings: Replication with a non-clinical sample. Journal of Personality Assessment, 98(6), 598-607.

Sinclair, S.J., Roche, M., Temes, C., Massey, C., Chung, W., Stein, M., Richardson, L., & Blais, M. (2016). Evaluating chronic suicide risk with the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI): Development and initial validation of the chronic suicide risk index (S_Chron). Psychiatry Research, 245; 443-450.

Stein, M.B., Slavin-Mulford, J., Sinclair, S.J., Chung, W.J., Roche, M., Denckla, C., & Blais, M.A. (2016). Extending the use of the SCORS-G composite ratings in assessing level of personality organization. Journal of Personality Assessment, DOI:10.1080/00223891.2016.1195394

Matlasz, T. M., Brylski, J. M., Leidenfrost, C. M., Scalco, M., Sinclair, S. J., Schoelerman, R. M., Tsang, V., & Antonius, D. (2017). Cognitive Status and Profile Validity on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in Forensic Offenders. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 50; 38-44 (DOI: 10.1016/j.ijlp.2016.10.003).

Sinclair, S.J., Ciccone, M., Main, K., Arroyo, G., Kolodziejczak, O., Dulaney, H., Barbosa, D., & Sheets, J. (2017). Fear and loathing in a post-9/11 world. Emotion ResearcherISRE’s Sourcebook for Research on Emotion and Affect,

Roche, M.J., Sinclair, S.J., Denckla, C., Chung, W., Stein, M., & Blais, M. (2017). The empirically-derived Violence and Aggression Risk Index (VARI) from the Personality Assessment Inventory: Development, Validation, and Application in General Psychiatric Settings. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 81(3): 213-232.

Siefert, C.J., Stein, M.B., Slavin-Mulford, J., Haggerty, G., Funke, D., Sinclair, S.J., & Blais, M. (2017). Exploring the factor structure of the Social Cognition and Object Relations – Global Rating. Journal of Personality Assessment

Leidenfrost, C. M., Randal, E., Scalco, M., Martin, P., Sinclair, S. J., Stewart, T., Schoelerman, R., & Antonius, D. (2018). Effectively assessing treatment needs in incarcerated seriously mentally ill individuals: the utility of the Personality Assessment Inventory - Level of Care Index. Journal of Correctional Health Care.

Perkey, H., Sinclair, S.J., Blais, M., Stein, M., Neal, P., Pierson, A., Slavin-Mulford, J. (2018). External validity of the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (PDSQ) in a clinical sample. Psychiatry Research261, 14-20.

Haggerty, G., Stein, M.B., Siefert, C., Zodan, J., Mehra, A. Ogbuli, K., Sangha, J., Habib, M., Sinclair, S.J., Blais, M.A. (2018). Dimensional measure of self and interpersonal functioning: Comparisons with treatment alliance and readiness for inpatient psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy.

Kolodziejczak, O., & Sinclair, S.J. (In Press). Barriers and facilitators to effective mental health care in correctional settings. Journal of Correctional Healthcare.

Sgroi, A., & Sinclair, S.J. (In Press). Cultural implications for mental health professionals working with deaf individuals. New School Psychology Bulletin.

Book Chapters:

LoCicero, A., Brown, A.J., & Sinclair, S.J. (2009). Fear across America in a post-9/11 world.  In M.J. Morgan, (Volume and Series Ed, The Impact of 9/11 on Psychology and EducationThe day that changed everything? (pp. 97-113). New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Sinclair, S.J., & LoCicero, A. (2010). The terrorism catastrophizing scale (TCS): assessing the ongoing psychological impact of terrorism. In L. Baer & M. Blais (Eds.), Handbook of clinical rating scales and assessment in psychiatry and mental health (pp. 271-286). Boston: Humana Press.

Sinclair, S.J. (2010). Fears of terrorism and future threat: theoretical and empirical considerations. In D. Antonius, A.D. Brown, T. Walters, M. Ramirez, S.J. Sinclair. (Eds.), Interdisciplinary Analyses of Terrorism and Aggression (pp. 101-117)Cambridge, England: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Sinclair, S.J., Blais, M.A., & Sherman, J.C. (2012). Neuropsychological Assessment. In T.A. Stern, J.B. Herman, & T. Gorrindo (Eds.), MGH Psychiatry Update and Board Preparation, 3rd edition (pp. 263-268)Boston: MGH Psychiatry Academy.

Sinclair, S.J., O’Keefe, S., & Blais, M.A. (2012). Psychological Assessment. In T.A. Stern, J.B. Herman, & Gorrindo T (Eds.), MGH Psychiatry Update and Board Preparation, 3rd edition (pp. 255-261). Boston: MGH Psychiatry Academy.

Blais, M., Sinclair, S.J., & O’Keefe, S. (2016). Understanding and applying psychological assessment. In T.A. Stern, M. Fava, T. Wilens, & J. Rosenbaum (Eds.), Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry, 2nd Edition (pp. 73-81). London: Elsevier.

Sinclair, S.J., Blais, M.B., & Blacker, D. (2017). Psychiatric Rating Scales. In B.J. Kaplan, & V.A. Sadock (Eds.), Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 10th edition, (pp. 1047-1078). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a division of Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.


Ware, J.E., Gandek, B., Sinclair, S.J., & Kosinski, M. (2003). Understanding health outcomes: an SF-36® primer for the medicare health outcomes survey. Lincoln, RI: Health Assessment Lab and QualityMetric Incorporated.

LoCicero, A., & Sinclair, S.J. (2008). Creating martyrs: conditions that make dying in a terrorist attack seem like a good ideaWestport, CT: Praeger Security International.

Antonius, D., Brown, A.D., Walters, T., Ramirez, M., & Sinclair, S.J. (Eds.). (2010). Interdisciplinary analyses of terrorism and aggression. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Sinclair, S.J., & Antonius, D. (2012). The psychology of terrorism fears. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jackson, R.J., & Sinclair, S.J. (Eds.). (2012). Contemporary debates in terrorism. London: Routledge Publishing.

Sinclair, S.J., & Antonius, D. (Eds.). (2013). The political psychology of terrorism fears. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Blais, M., & Sinclair, S.J. (2018). Spectra: Indices of Psychopathology. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources (PAR).

Current Professional Leadership and/or Concurrent Work Experience

Prior Professional Leadership and/or Work Experience

  • 2008-2016: Staff Psychologist, Massachusetts General Hospital
  • 2010-2016: Assistant Professor, Harvard Medical School
  • 2010-2016: Director of Research, Psychological Evaluation and Research Laboratory, MGH


Professional Affiliations

  • 2002-Present, American Psychological Association (APA)
  • 2006-Present, Society for Terrorism Research (STR) – Founder & Past President (2007-2010)
  • 2007-Present, Association for Threat Assessment Professionals (ATAP)
  • 2010-Present, Society for Personality Assessment (SPA)